Fred Fiedler’s contingency model revisited: 30 years later

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31874/2309-1606-2023-29-1-6

Keywords:

Fiedler’s Contingency Model, situational leadership, leadership styles, leadership behavior, Least Preferred Co-Workers Scale

Abstract

A historical review was conducted on Fred Fiedler’s Contingency Model to determine how this model has been used over the past 30 years since 1980. Fred Fiedler’s Contingency Model was created in 1967 to move the field of organizational research from analyzing traits and personal characteristics of leaders to assessing leadership styles and behaviors. The premise of the model is that the individual’s leadership style is the result of their life experiences, making it a fixed characteristic that is extremely difficult to change. Over the years, this model has been used with the aim of improving its validity and reliability in a multitude of national and international organizational settings. The article begins with a brief review of Fiedler’s background, progresses with a detailed description of Fiedler’s Contingency Model, and chronicles Fiedler’s Contingency Model’s use in the past and the present from 1980 to 2022. As a result, two major implications were found. The first implication was that the frequent use of the model had strengthened its validity and reliability, where it was one of the models that were readily used in studies focused on organizational leadership. The second implication was that the findings from these studies were used to address leadership problems that the organization needed to resolve. Based on these implications, it is safe to conclude that this model will continue to be used in future studies, where it will be fascinating to see how the results from Fiedler’s Contingency Model will benefit the organizations moving forward. Challenges facing many workplaces is the issue where supervisors’ leadership style may not fit specific work situation which leads to conflict with their employees. Fiedler’s Contingency Model provides a tool that can be used to identify and place supervisors in the best work situation where the supervisors’ leadership style can be the most effective.

Author Biography

Lester C. Reams, Mount Saint Mary’s University, Los Angeles, California

Doctor of Public Administration (D.P.A.), Juris Doctor (J.D), Associate Professor

References

Altmäe, S., Türk, K., & Toomet, O. (2013). Thomas-Kilmann’s Conflict Management Modes and their relationship to Fiedler’s Leadership Styles (basing on Estonian organizations). Baltic Journal of Management 8(1), 1–18. https://doi. org/10.1108/17465261311291650

Busciglio, H. H. (1988). Behavioral Intentions and Esteem for Least-Preferred Coworker. Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (Eds.). Theory of Reasoned Action-Theory of Planned Behavior. Tampa: University of South Florida.

Cummins, R.C. (1990). Job Stress and the Buffering Effect of Supervisory Support. Group & Organization Studies 15(1), 92–104. https://doi.org/10.1177/105960119001500107

da Cruz, M. R. P., Nunes, A. J. S, & Pinheiro, P. G. (2012). Fiedler’s Contingency Theory: Practical Application of the Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Scale IUP. Journal of Organizational Behavior 10(4), 7-26.

De Souza, S. (2020). An Experimental Test of Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: The Effect of Gender. Loyola University Chicago. Master’s Theses. 4366. https://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_theses/4366

Fiedler, F. E. (1967). A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Fiedler, F. E. & Garcia, J. E. (1987). New Approaches to Effective Leadership, Cognitive Resources and Organizational Performance. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Forrester, L. C. V. (1992). Effective teaching behaviors in award-winning community college teachers in the United States and Canada employing Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership effectiveness (dissertation). University Microfilms International. https:// bac-lac.on.worldcat.org/oclc/27678124

Howell, K. R. (2018). Fiedler and Chemers Revisted; Understanding the Implications of the Least Preferred Co-worker Scale. Journal of Business and Management Sciences 6(3), 82-85. https://doi.org/10.12691/jbms-6-3-3

Javadian, S. N., Asgarian, M., Khabiri, M. & Assadi, H. (2005) Examination of Fiedler Contingency Theory in Physical Education Departments and Faculties in Higher Education University. HARAKAT, (23), 99–112. https://www.sid.ir/journal/ issue/2958/en

Mitchell, T. R., Biglan, A., Oncken, G. R., & Fiedler, F. E. (1970). The Contingency Model: Criticism and Suggestions. Academy of Management Journal 13(3), 253–267. https://doi.org/10.5465/254963

Lottes, D. (2012). The Effect of General Versus Specific Coworker in Directions on Fiedler’s Least Preferred Coworker Scale. Western Kentucky University. Masters Theses & Specialist Projects. Paper 1141. https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/theses/1141/

Peterson, C. L. (2005). A case study of leadership during change at Midwest: An institution of higher education (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas). https://www.proquest. com/openview/0d1a63572f52dd77498170de51f56168/1.pdf?pq-origsite=gscholar &cbl=18750&diss=y

Reams, B. P. (1980). The Relationship between Educational Managers’ Leadership Styles and Educational Philosophies. University of La Verne, UMI.

Reams, L. C. (1992). The Relationship between Health Administrators’ Leadership Styles and Role-Conflict Indicators: Dissertation. University of La Verne, UMI.

Reed, R. (2021). Higher Education Administrator Turnover: An Examination of Situational Leadership Styles. College & University 96(1), 2–15.

Rowlinson, S., Ho, T. K. K., & Yen, P.-H. (1993). Leadership style of construction managers in Hong Kong. Construction Management and Economics 11(6), 455–465. https://doi. org/10.1080/01446199300000051

Santos, J. V. L., Florencondia, N., Marcos, E. V., Lansangan, R. M. B, & Cabrera, F.S. (2022). Effective Leadership Style of Engineering Managers in the Government Construction Agency: National Irrigation Administration – UPRIIS Division V. Engineering and Technology Journal, 7(01), 1132–1138. https://doi.org/10.47191/etj/v7i1.04

Slide Team. (2023). Least preferred co worker lpc scale corporate leadership ppt infographics. https://www.slideteam.net/least-preferred-co-worker-lpc-scale-corporate-leadership-ppt-infographics.html

Vance, T. E. (2020). A Quantitative Study Examining Fielder’s Leadership Contingency Theory LPC Rating Applied to the Foreign H-1b Work Visa Call Center Workers (Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University). https://www.proquest.com/openview/ab075 8af0d16a3ee0789fc107d83cdcb/1?cbl=51922&diss=y&pq-origsite=gscholar

Downloads

Abstract views: 1442

Published

2023-07-21

How to Cite

Reams, L. C. (2023). Fred Fiedler’s contingency model revisited: 30 years later. Filosofiya Osvity. Philosophy of Education, 29(1), 111–124. https://doi.org/10.31874/2309-1606-2023-29-1-6

Issue

Section

Articles

Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Most read articles by the same author(s)