Filosofiya osvity. Philosophy of Education 2021-01-04T16:47:51+02:00 Mykhailo BOICHENKO (Михайло БОЙЧЕНКО) Open Journal Systems <p>"<strong>Filosofiya osvity. Philosophy of Education</strong> "is a scientific journal published by the Institute of Higher Education of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine in cooperation with the Ukrainian Society of Philosophy of Education. "Philosophy of Education "is a peer-reviewed journal with open access, which focuses on paradigmatic, theoretical, methodological and conceptual issues of the philosophy of education. "Philosophy of Education "publishes articles presenting a wide range of philosophical and educational issues, paying attention to educational issues in the context of globalization, the&nbsp;information revolution, transit society, which is Ukraine. He deduces contemporary research on understanding the strategies of reforming education in the 21st century from the standpoint of different methodologies and philosophical approaches. The magazine published the first translations into Ukrainian of works (M.Gorkheimer, J.Gabermas, P.Slotterdijk) and original articles, an appeal to readers, interviews with well-known contemporary philosophers, sociologists and educators, such as W. McBride, P. MсLaren E. Laszlo, P. Sztompka, S. Shtobrin, J. Bishop, J. Gore, Jan de Groof, M. Peters, F. Fukuyama, M. Burawoy, Jin Wann Park. The journal forms the space of philosophical discourse&nbsp;is the center of the Ukrainian Society of Philosophy of Education&nbsp;and also develops contacts with scientific communities of other countries. The composition of the editorial board is represented by researchers from Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Poland, Greece, the United States and Croatia. Its activities include not only the publication of the journal, but also the holding of scientific conferences, methodological seminars, roundtables on topical issues of education, popularization,&nbsp;and implementation of research ideas and developments in educational practice, which is reflected in the issues of the journal. The authors' articles in the magazine, as well as access to the magazine archive, are free.</p> A Man with a Lamp 2021-01-04T16:47:51+02:00 Sergiy Kurbatov <p>Serhiy Kurbatov's essay is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth and 10th anniversary of the death of the famous Ukrainian philosopher Serhiy Borysovych Krymsky (1930-2010) and contains the author's reflections on the life and work of this extraordinary personality.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Interview with Vania Angelova 2020-12-24T22:57:04+02:00 Maryna Petrivna Prepotenska Vania Angelova <p>The interview with Vania Angelova is devoted to the topic of multipotentials – versatile gifted people. By her own example, the Bulgarian researcher tells how she took part in the different projects as a writer, philologist, poetess, journalist and in many other guises. At the same time, such versatility is not a burden for her – on the contrary, the participation in different projects and the performance of various social roles allow her to reveal more deeply and fully each of them, stimulates new creative searches. What for the older generations was the result of overwhelming or unique personality is increasingly becoming a widespread norm, a way of life for the younger generation. This allows us to speak now of the new generation as a generation of multipotentials, whereas earlier it was possible to observe only extremely rare phenomena of multipotentials on the example of individuals. Vania Angelova believes that the formation of a person as a multipotential begins in early childhood, therefore it is extremely important to educate children that will enable them to develop as multipotentials. Vania Angelova critically assesses the onset of modern digital culture, its dominance, and encourages young people to turn to books and not limit their world to digital technologies. At the same time, the Internet, social networks, online classes can partially compensate for the lack of communication in emergency situations, such as a pandemic and the accompanying lockdowns. Also, digital communications contribute to the establishment of international contacts – the implementation of both scientific and other creative projects. However, any successful projects are based on live human communication – it is this that reveals the personality as a multipotential. Therefore, personal communication is especially important in the field of education.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Scientific criticism and criteria of scientific character 2020-12-24T20:40:24+02:00 Boguslaw Wolniewic <p>The first Ukrainian translation of the text by Boguslaw Wolniewicz "Scientific criticism and criteria of scientific character".</p> <p>Boguslaw Wolniewicz (1927-2017) is a new figure in Ukrainian information space. This Warsaw professor and visiting professor at a number of leading American and European universities, a member of the International Wittgenstein Society, also known for his journalistic activities, including appearances in the press, radio and television, and lectures on YouTube where he became a real star of the Internet.</p> <p>The main areas of his thought were logic, metaphysics, ethics, philosophy of religion and philosophy of law, but he gained the most recognition as the creator of the ontology of the situation, as translator and commentator of Ludwig Wittgenstein, as well as a critic of freudianism, phenomenology, postmodernism, marxism and religious fundamentalism.</p> <p>In his view, philosophy is an attempt to rationally grasp problems on which there is no scientific knowledge. Along with the chaos in modern social life, the role of philosophy is constantly growing. Philosophy expresses theses that through common sense anyone can reach, if they think deeply enough. Therefore, there are no innovative things in it. It is about providing tools for the formation of clear thoughts, which, in turn, make it possible to distinguish between truth and falsehood in all non-scientific knowledge, in particular because it relates to the problems of philosophy and education.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Let's protect schools 2020-12-24T20:57:32+02:00 Boguslaw Wolniewicz <p>The first Ukrainian translation of the text by Boguslaw Wolniewicz " Let's protect schools".</p> <p>Boguslaw Wolniewich (1927-2017) is a new figure in Ukrainian information space. This Warsaw professor and visiting professor at a number of leading American and European universities, a member of the International Wittgenstein Society, also known for his journalistic activities, including appearances in the press, radio and television, and lectures on YouTube where he became a real star of the Internet.</p> <p>The main areas of his thought were logic, metaphysics, ethics, philosophy of religion and philosophy of law, but he gained the most recognition as the creator of the ontology of the situation, as translator and commentator of Ludwig Wittgenstein, as well as a critic of freudianism, phenomenology, postmodernism, marxism and religious fundamentalism.</p> <p>In his opinion, school reform cannot destroy the authority of a teacher – even for the sake of introducing the latest foreign educational models. Wolniewicz defends the ideals of the classical school, which should give students scientifically sound knowledge, not just practical recipes for survival in society. He emphasizes that the main task of the school is education, and education can appear in it only as a valuable by-product – as doping. The school educates only through learning: through its content, its level, its requirements and its appropriate organization. Wolniewicz warns against the dominance of bureaucracy in the school, and sees the mission of the state in ensuring educational autonomy. A school should not be a profit-oriented institution or a means of building the personal career of an official.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Anthropological Foundations of Global Education 2020-12-24T21:12:49+02:00 Andrzej Gzegorczyk <p>The first Ukrainian translation of the text by Andrzej Grzegorczyk "Anthropological Foundations of Global Education".</p> <p>Andrzej Grzegorczyk (1922-2014) asks the question: is the current construction of the world educational system theoretically justified in terms of human cognitive needs in the modern world, and does it have prospects for development? The theoretical starting point for the rational substantiation of the construction of a modern educational program needed in our era can be represented by distinguishing two components of the picture of human life: 1) stages of development of knowledge of the child and 2) branches (spheres) of human activity to which the school should prepare.</p> <p>Andrzej Grzegorczyk offers his own vision of the sequence of formation of the student's personality. Based on the achievements of socio-evolutionary psychology, he proposes to correlate ontogenesis and phylogeny in education. The young human individual goes, in particular, through successive phases of development, in each of which in turn is dominated by the following four educational and developmental processes initiated by the natural human environment (as well as school). The stages of learning correspond, thus, to the prospects of student development: from the narrowest (family-tribal) perspective to the universalist, which is a synthesis of what tradition brings, as well as acquired knowledge and development of a sense of universal values. Thus, the stages (levels) of education can, in his opinion, be called as follows: 1) family-tribal, 2) traditionally national-religious, 3) individual-rationalist-scientific, 4) universalist-synthetic.</p> <p>The second dimension of the education program is the field / field of study. Presenting the problems of creative realization of values ​​in public life, they can be arranged according to certain parameters: guidelines for activity, way of seeing one's place in society, forms (mechanisms) of action to which the individual is usually subject or implements at this stage, related norms and positions. Among the positions of special attention deserves the experience of self-worth. In the formation of the educational system should include in the content of education the following topics related to culture, the following parameters: type of culture, the main idea of ​​culture of this type, characteristics of the richness of cultural production of this type and related type of knowledge.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prospects for the development of philosophical education in Ukraine. Round Table 2020-12-24T21:37:43+02:00 Angela Boiko Andriy Yosypovych Dakhniy Ivan Vasyliovych Karpenko Vadym Ihorovych Menzhulin Sergii Viktorovych Proleiev Lyudmyla Oleksiivna Shashkova Mykhailo Ivanovych Boichenko <p>On May 19, 2020, it took place online a meeting of the participants of the working group formed by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine to develop a state standard of philosophical education for three higher education levels – bachelor's, master's and PhD programs. The meeting was attended by most of the members of the working group, who had the opportunity to do so. The topic for discussion was the still unrealized potential of philosophical education, which is available in Ukrainian universities, in particular – the causes and consequences of the current crisis in higher education in Ukraine in general, and in philosophical education in particular. There were revealed the strengths and weaknesses of the current system of teaching philosophy in the Ukrainian higher school, its indisputable achievements and not yet realized opportunities, and accordingly – the prospects for the development of philosophical education in Ukraine. The following issues were discussed: lacks in philosophical education in Ukraine today, changes in the content and format of this education, experience of rapid development of public philosophy in Ukraine useful for improving academic education, benefits of academic philosophical education in Ukraine. During the discussion of these issues, it was emphasized the need to preserve the best academic traditions of Ukrainian universities, as well as their further institutional development and purification from outdated forms in order to update the content of philosophy. It was noted the need for a new definition of the goals of philosophical education – both for philosophy itself and for the education system and society as a whole. Among the tasks of improving the content of philosophical education was mentioned improving the quality of historical-philosophical research and in particular translations of world classics into Ukrainian, and at the same time stressed the need to study modern philosophical problems together with students and graduate students. Special mention was made of the large and still underused resource of involving students in the formation of a curriculum in philosophy (free choice of some disciplines), as well as creative resources and useful experience of non-academic teaching of philosophy, which has its weaknesses and strengths. The participants agreed on the need to return to philosophical education an elite status, which should be provided primarily on master's and PhD levels of education, while the new bachelor's standard of philosophical education is designed to provide quality broad humanities education.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Student view on the prospects of philosophical education in Ukraine 2020-12-24T22:29:29+02:00 Zlatyslav Oleksandrovych Dubniak <p>The article analyzes the results of a questionnaire of students of philosophical specialties at leading Ukrainian universities about the prospects of philosophical education in Ukraine. Students answered five questions: «What should be changed in the content of philosophical education in Ukraine?», «What should be changed in the format of philosophical education in Ukraine?», «What do you consider an attribute of academic philosophical education?», «What projects of public philosophy in Ukraine do you know or perhaps participated in them?» and «What can students do on their own in the near future to make changes for the better in philosophy education tangible?» The study of the answers showed that the desired changes in the content of philosophical education are the actualization of literature and topics, inclusion in the curriculum of works, ideas of recent decades, as well as balancing courses, establishing a productive sequence and interconnection of different disciplines. In the format of philosophical education, students would like to change the number and quality of interactions between all participants in the learning process through the introduction of new ways of interaction. Another proposal is to give preference to creative practices over the practices of passive assimilation and reproduction of information. In addition, respondents drew attention to the need to increase the responsibility of the professor in terms of student assessment. Respondents also stressed the need for students to adhere to academic integrity, as well as the need to increase the organizational and administrative activity of students. In general, these and other answers presented in the paper can be considered as examples of student reflection on current issues of philosophical education in Ukraine.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Review of the results of the round table "Metamorphoses of the center and periphery in the medical, gender and age dimensions of inclusion" 2020-12-24T22:40:04+02:00 Maria Shcherbina Oleg Marushchenko <p>On May 28, 2020 on the online platform of Kharkiv National Medical University in the framework of scientific and practical online conference with international participation "The problem of man in socio-humanitarian and medical discourses" successfully held a round table "Metamorphoses of the center and periphery in medical, gender and age dimensions inclusion". The focus was on the phenomenon of inclusion, in particular, with a projection on education. Inclusion was interpreted by the participants as broadly as possible – as the inclusion of any people and groups of people who are discriminated against and / or in need of certain mechanisms of adaptation in social life, as well as a theoretical model of interaction of all people in different spheres of society on the basis of equality of rights and opportunities. Attendees tried to give a nudge for an interpretation that goes beyond the traditional stereotypical identity of inclusion = disability and focused on the stereotypes that exist in education and medicine about transgender and homosexual people, people with disabilities, children with hearing impairments, children with SEN, etc. Inclusion is the recognition of the unique characteristics of each individual, the creation of a culture that seeks and strives to ensure equality of opportunities and at the same time accents and values ​​the differences. Medical universities are forming a new culture of inclusiveness, mutual respect and tolerance among future professionals, which, in turn, should affect the equality and democracy of society as a whole, and in particular non-discrimination, security of space, equal access to health care. The discussion also focused on the educational training of the medical community, but there were revealed also gaps in the legal field of Ukraine, the unrealized potential for the development of inclusive education in educational system in general. The existing models of disability in the society are considered: charitable, medical, social, human rights defending.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Homo Digitalis, Digital culture and Digital Education: Explorations of Philosophical Anthropology and of Philosophy of Education 2020-12-22T01:27:16+02:00 Maria Kultaieva <p>The article presents an analysis of reflections of the Western philosophical anthropology and anthropological oriented philosophy of education upon the digital culture as a new stage of the mass culture development inherited from industrial society. It was done with the aim to show the heuristic potential of the conceptualizations of the digital culture in philosophical anthropology and philosophy of education. The orientation function of the concept “homo digitalis” is unveiled, which is wide-spread using in the West-European, especially in Germany, and in the provocative philosophy of education. The ideal-typically construct of the human as the creation and the creator of the digital culture explains the distinctiveness of the communications in the space of this culture which is represented generally as a visual culture making provocation on purpose making close of the traditional writing culture. There is settling a comparative analyze of human figures created of the different generations of the German philosophical anthropology with accentuating on the semantics of homo digitalis, homo faber and homo creator which are partly complementary. The spatially and temporally characteristics of the digital culture are described, its forms of the communication are explicating in their singularity where the phatic communication predominates and risks of the digital alienation exists. The digital culture changes the self-recognition of the post-industrial societies which need world-view and moral orientation including expertly moral evaluation that is necessary for the prevention of the modernization risks. The pathologies of the digital culture, especially the digital dementia can be observed in the practices of the digital education else, but the blended Learning, if it is rationally organized and adequately administrated available resources, can minimizes those pathologies.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 From sustainable development to degrowth: philosophical and educational strategies for sustainability 2020-12-22T21:56:20+02:00 Yurii Mielkov <p>The article is dedicated to analyzing the philosophical and educational grounds for the sustainable development of humankind. The growth of human civilization is already recognized to have its strict natural limits, and that has resulted in the formulation of the concept of sustainable development as a strategy for the future of humankind. However, there is some discrepancy noted in the concept of sustainable development – in particular, it is the lack of fundamental consistency between its ‘economic’ and ‘ecological’ components. It is insufficient to consider the nature being valuable only as a base of resources, as means for social and economic development. As sustainability could only be based on some minimal conditions for living within the regenerative capacity of the planet’s ecosystems, it is evident that the current crisis is a crisis of senses, values and lifestyle no less than it is the crisis of industry and social demography. Sustainability is argued to require a new kind of society that would be able to decrease its growth and its excessive consumption habits. The article analyzes the concept of degrowth as a kind of more radical and practical supplement to the rather abstract idea of sustainable development: degrowth is defined as an ecologically sound development. That concept is also shown to present new challenges for higher education as a social institution tasked with constituting a human personality capable of living in a environmentally sound future. Thus, higher education is faced today with the challenge of shaping out not only knowledge and skills, but values and behavior patterns as well, by giving more attention to general culture, critical thinking and creativity and by increasing social responsibility for environmental protection and adopting lifestyle practices of degrowth and reduced consumption.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Strategies for the development of humanities education in the age of technocratism and globalization 2020-12-22T22:22:19+02:00 Nataliia Petruk <p>The article is devoted to the study of basic strategies for the development of humanities education in the technocratic and global world. It is stated that total pragmatism and technocratism of our lives causes a deep crisis of study of humanities and leads to the destruction of those human virtues that form the culture. The current state of humanities education and its prospects are assessed in terms of the need to shape the spiritual world of man, his intellectual and spiritual needs. The humanities are creating a socio-cultural space where a human is of the highest value, and culture itself is the embodiment of all the important meanings of human existence. The general tendency of development of the modern Ukrainian education is reduction of the general volume of the humanities taught in schools, colleges and universities. In the context of economic and pragmatic expediency in education, the impact of the humanities on society and public consciousness is distinctly diminished. The need for new strategies for the development of humanities education is justified by the need to enhance its role in society. Emphasis is placed on the fact that the purpose of the study of humanities is in the development of human potential and critical thinking, orientation to dialogue and free development of the individual, formation of the ability to outline the current moral and value imperatives, raising of the individual with an active civic position. By these qualities, the new model of humanitarian education differs from the old one, based on the acquisition of knowledge and the successful completion of standard tasks. It is also important to create an independent, non-conformist community of humanity scholars, which should show examples of high intellectual and spiritual culture, civic position and patriotism.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Education and situation of the plurality of values 2020-12-22T22:40:19+02:00 Serhii Yosypenko <p>According to the author of article, the popularity of the word “values” in scientific and public discourse is due to the logics of how this word is used in the plural, which, in turn, indicates a situation of plurality of values. This article outlines the genealogy of situation of plurality of values ​​on the basis of the works of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Friedrich Nietzsche, Max Weber. They reflect the different phases of understanding this situation, which appears from the opposition of modern values ​​to traditional values, and European values ​​– the values ​​of other peoples; when Rousseau protests against such opposition, appealing to natural condition of virtue, which doesn’t know such opposition, Nietzsche recognizes the situation of the plurality of values inevitable, because different values correspond to different human inclinations, needs and desires; when&nbsp; Rousseau considers the spread of science and education to be the cause of a situation of plurality of values, Weber postulates the neutrality of science in relation to the values. The situation of plurality today turns into such problems as the conflict of values, the solution of which is the acceptance of pluralism and in the age of pluralism – the problem of relativization of values. Olivier Reboul, famous French philosopher of education, formulates this problem as a contradiction between the universalist and particularist approach to the European values, which makes education impossible as the transfer of values. On the basis of articulated approaches to this contradiction by Reboul, the author distinguishes the positions of “particularist fundamentalism” and “universalist fundamentalism”. Overcoming this contradiction is possible by rethinking the correlation between particular and universal values, as well as finding universal values that would ensure the unity of separate identities without destroying them. According to the author, in the modern world such values become freedom and science, without which the freedom to choose one's own values is incomplete.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Educational guidelines in the process of implementation of rational principles and the value preconditions of the open society 2020-12-22T22:55:34+02:00 Аndrii Ivanovich Abdula <p>The theoretical model of the open society was and remains a fruitful way of reflecting the essential links within a democratic society. Analyzing this concept from its rationality, the author tries to highlight its fundamental principles and determine their impact on the form and content of the functioning of education.</p> <p>The article offers a view of K. Popper’s “open society” as a way to implement the principles of criticism (critical methodology), of (potential) fallibility, egalitarianism (pluralism) as principles of social rationality. The connection between these principles, moral obligations, and the humanistic theory of justice is emphasized. Their socio-philosophical and epistemological realization in the context of educational issues is covered. The paper considers problems of state intervention in educational processes, the definition of educational goals, the methodology of social reforms (including educational reforms).</p> <p>The article also outlines the problem of defining the boundaries of regulation of the educational process in the value system of open society. This discussion is interpreted in terms of the theory of rationality as an attempt to avoid the extremes of absolutism (dogmatism) and relativism. Emphasis is placed on the prospects of using the critical-rationalist methodology, in the context of education and development of skills necessary for participation in democratic processes.</p> <p>Particular attention is paid to the problematic aspects of the implementation of the rational principles and values of the open society in the educational environment and in the process of reforming the education system in the absence of a constant critical and rationalist tradition. The paper emphasizes the importance of critical thinking in the prospect of implementing these transformations.</p> <p>The importance of scientific, logical and methodological, psychological and pedagogical aspects of critical thinking is emphasized; the author tries to comprehend the problematic aspects of the implementation of these principles in the process of implementing reforms in the field of education.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Multipotentials in educational discourse 2020-12-22T23:07:19+02:00 Maryna Petrovna Prepotenska <p>While responding to the challenges of globalization, the system of modern education often reduces the range of humanitarian disciplines, forming utilitarian programs in universities, but at the same time preserves such a vestige of the past as the priority of the academic format over the heuristic one. At the same time, the global world, a multiplex of events and opportunities, contributes to the emergence of a special type of a student in the educational discourse – a multipotential (MPL), who is capable of succeeding in several activities at once. The philosophical and methodological key to the reorganization of education within this context may be the idea of ​​a “transversal self” of a student in the dynamics of diversity and creative self-development. In light of the theory of generations and multipotentiality, a balance of academism and new forms of university communication is becoming necessary because in the life of millennials and representatives of generation Z, reality and virtual space, modular thinking and multitasking, the dislike for reading and creativity, and independent judgments merge. Interactive, visual, virtual and performative forms of learning are the most effective solutions for them. Social cataclysms of the beginning of the 21st century also require special stress resistance, emotional intelligence, auto-reflection, and media literacy from participants of the educational process. This actualizes the resources of practical philosophy, psychology, sociology and other humanitarian disciplines for the comprehensive development, awareness and self-regulation of a person. A very constructive educational discourse is the communication of a multi-potential teacher with gifted students. One example can be the scientific and creative activities of Vanya Angelova, a professor at Velikotyrnovsky University. St. Cyril and Methodius, who emphasizes the value of the "return" of the book, the co-creation of teachers and students, and wide international cooperation within the context of the topic of multi-potentials.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 University Mission in Western-European Culture (Ethical and Sociological Aspects) P. ІІ 2020-12-22T23:32:04+02:00 Sergiy Volodymirovych Kurbatov Mariya Mikhaylivna Rohozha <p>The paper by Sergiy Kurbatov and Mariya Rohozha “The Mission of University in the Western European Culture”(Part II) is devoted to the analyses of transformation of the university as social institution and cultural phenomenon in our time, which we started at the first part of this paper, that was published in “Philosophy of Education”, 2017, № 2 (21)). If the previous paper of these authors included a long chronological period from the origin of the university in late Medieval time up to the 20<sup>th</sup> century, the current paper is concentrated on analyses of radical challenges, that university faced at the end of the 20<sup>th</sup> century and at the beginning of the 21<sup>st</sup> century. For example, such popular in contemporary English language literature concept as the end (or the death) of university is observed. The authors tried to analyze sociological attempts to measure the main university activities in the form of international university rankings and the possibilities to develop in Ukraine the ideal models of university, which any system of university rankings have. The special stress was made on the influence of COVID 19 pandemic on transformative processes and institutional development of universities in the nearest future. The main challenges of the 21<sup>st</sup> century are crucial for the university, because this institution lost monopoly of producing and distribution of advanced knowledge for the first time in history. From the tactic viewpoint, university is less competitive than the different training programs and online courses, it is too conservative and bureaucratic one. But the authors think that in strategic perspective university has a chance for renovation, proving the old maxima that the values and spiritual dimensions of being and the relevant environment are crucial for human being. Almost the millennium of university history proves its ability to pass through the dramatic historical transformation and to continue to maintain its essence.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Against the Tide. On the Pedagogy of Freedom in Polish Pedagogical Thought 2020-12-24T17:56:49+02:00 Slawomir Sztobryn <p>Among the Eastern European countries in the USSR's sphere of influence, Poland enjoyed the greatest freedom, which puts into question the hasty and evaluative assessments of the then educators, describing some of them as being homo sovietus or homo sovietus-like. The situation was very complex and it is in this perspective where one should undertake research on the past, 20th century pedagogical thought. Regardless of how ideologized Polish education was, it should be noted that many scholars who shaped their theoretical concepts in free, pre-war Poland opposed the promotion of Stalinism in science and education. At the time, the church played a certain positive role in this struggle, which also has to be recognized as a sham of opportunism. The pre-war philosophy of upbringing, particularly deviating from the doctrinal assumptions of Marxism-Leninism, became the main target of the attack, and such outstanding scholars as S. Hessen, B. Nawroczyński, L. Chmaj or K. Sośnicki were subject to harassment on the part of the authorities. The remnant of those times, which still lasts in the present day, is a belief in special value, and sometimes even in the foreground of empirical pedagogy with simultaneous negation of philosophical pedagogy. Meanwhile, it was Hessen who proved that empirical pedagogy - valuable in itself - is a great tool to learn how it is, but silent about how it should be. All teleology, which before the war grew out of philosophical currents (Hessen's neo-Kantism, Lviv-Warsaw school of Nawroczyński and Sośnicki) in the era of primacy of one party was a derivative of its ideology depriving pedagogy of its subjectivity and scientific autonomy. What makes Polish pedagogy of freedom different is the fact of practicing it in historical and philosophical orbit, when we look at it from the substantive side and positive disintegration, when we want to understand it from the personality of its creators.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Коли гуманітарій плакав або Криза гуманітарної освіти в Україні: симптоми і шляхи лікування 2020-12-24T18:17:33+02:00 Kateryna Serhiivna Honcharenko <p>This article may be completely devoid of academic pathos and full of everyday irony, but such an approach can probably be justified by the situation that has developed in the educational space of the country today. The situation itself is so glaring that speaking in the "exemplary language" of high-ranking officials and extensive constructions of wordplay like the "bright future" of our education does not arouse any desire. Under these conditions, in this article we try to analyze some problems that exist in the system of humanitarian education in Ukraine. In particular, we address the issue that the country's educational strategy (if it exists at all) is a continuous "experiment" based on the continuous testing of various educational strategies in the world on the Ukrainian education system and in which children and teachers are subjects. Such experiments, even in experimental sociology or psychology, are called "inhuman." After all, only "our" education system adopts a new strategy, as soon as the next Minister of Education appears with his innovations and his own vision of the situation; it lacks either logic or any relationship between higher and secondary schools; it is there that the level of state funding of the humanitarian bloc is declining and depreciating, which could lead to complete cultural degradation. We focus on the latter. Because it is the humanities education, and the same humanities, at any time, in any country have been leaders and indicators of the level of social and cultural development in general. The purpose and objectives of the study are to identify and analyze some of the problems that exist today in the field of humanities education and which cause the symptoms of its "disease"</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lecturing philosophy as its actualization 2020-12-24T18:36:56+02:00 Bohdan Volodymyrovych Adamenko <p>The present times are full of various challenges, as it always used to be. Having in mind the rapid development of science and technology, we inevitably find ourselves under their influence. Thus, technology not only makes our life easier, but is also capable of shaping human perception in new obstacles. It can influence our choices and responsibility beyond them. Such a dynamic rate of producing new ideas and technology does not allow a proper and forehanded evaluation of their response in our near future. Since philosophers work with relatively constant terms, they have to be in the avant-gardé of a conceptual analysis and problem-shaping of the challenges facing modern people. In such circumstances, lecturing philosophy should hold a prominent position. The sphere of morals and ethical evaluations forms value basis for human self-cognition and performs as a stimulus to a more responsibly deliberated life. In this situation, a philosopher finds himself in a crucial role as a person, who provides this knowledge. The use of philosophical means has to start with the analysis of those, who are in charge of their usage. In order to remain frank with the audience and himself, a philosopher should start lecturing from himself, his self-cognition, as well as from a clear deliberation of his personal moral guidelines and personal responsibility. The situation, in which a philosopher shapes his personal ideas, formulates concepts, analyses, and provides arguments without proper elaboration of their premises and basic principles, raises concerns. Within the scope of this article we attempt to designate the term “philosopher” and philosopher’s position in the modern world. In order to articulate this term properly, we suggest a distinction in terminology between “philosophers of aim” and “philosophers of purpose”, which serves as a marker to estimate philosophic activities in their full scope. In my opinion, any philosophic activities, in their basis, perform as a practice of essential responsibility. The abovementioned definitions provide us with an ability to notice a distinction between philosophers and pseudo-philosophers, as well to evaluate the importance of the ones and the perniciousness of the others.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A New Concept of Nature as a Foundation for Ethics: On the Relevance of Hans Jonas 2020-12-24T18:50:35+02:00 Marcus Knaup Hanna Hubenko Galyna Iarmolovych <p>The article is devoted to the bioethical reconstruction of the theoretical heritage of Hans Jonas (1903-1993) – a famous German and later American philosopher. Jonas showed that the study of ethics, namely the ethics of the living, should become an integral part of the formation of modern human, his complete education. He was one of the most fascinating thinkers of the twentieth century. He has presented groundbreaking works which are still the subject of serious discussion especially in the areas of ethics and philosophy of nature. In these publications he presents an in-depth philosophical reflection on the relationship between human beings and nature, as well as on the manner in which we approach our association with technology. Particularly in the light of possibilities presented by modern technology, Jonas was primarily interested in a new approach to the philosophy of nature as the basis, the foundation for an ethics of global responsibility. The article re-actualizes the thoughts and arguments of Jonas, which are especially relevant now, at the beginning of the XXI century. These include: the technique change the nature itself, not just human's attitude to nature; the technical sciences change a human being, the mathematization of nature leads to a change not only in human evaluation, but also in human value; critique of epiphenomenalism for underestimating mental states and identifying the non-reducibility of living creatures to its parts; the search for the potential of subjectivity in the realm of living creatures as a whole; reliance on the principle of responsibility as a way to ensure a future humanity as guaranteed, albeit limited in its capabilities. Educating a person on the basis of the principle of responsibility opens the possibility to take into account the interests of future generations and all living creatures, understanding that every person always was, is and will be a part of realm of these creatures. The philosophy of nature as such whole realm creates the preconditions and foundations for the ethics of responsibility as a postconventional universalist ethics. A new way of thinking in nature is the basis of ethics in the technological age: in addition to philosophy and science, the voices of religion, politics, education and the public sphere must also be heard to find answers to current life questions.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Presocratics and Other Living Beings 2020-12-24T19:49:43+02:00 Željko Kaluđerović <p>Advocates of the questioning of the dominant anthropocentric perspective of the world have been increasingly strongly presenting (bio)ethical demands for a new solution of the relationship between humans and other beings, saying that adherence to the Western philosophical and theological traditions has caused the current environmental, and not just environmental, crisis. The attempts are being made to establish a new relationship by relativizing the differences between man and the non-human living beings, often by attributing specifically human traits and categories, such as dignity, moral status and rights to non-human living beings. The author explores antecedents of the standpoints that deviate from the mainstream Western philosophy, in terms of non-anthropocentric extension of ethics, and finds them in the fragments of first physicists, which emphasize kinship of all varieties of life. Pythagoras, Empedocles, Anaxagoras and Democritus, in this context, considered certain animals and plants as sacred, i.e. they believed that they are, in a sense, responsible for what they do and that they apart from being able to be driven by a natural desire, being able to breathe, feel, be sad and happy, also have a soul, power of discernment, awareness, the ability to think, understanding and mind. Finally, the author believes that solutions or mitigation of the mentioned crisis are not in the simple Aesopeian levelling of animals and plants "upwards", but in an adequate paideutic approach which in humans will develop an inherent (bio)ethical model of accepting non-human living beings as creatures who deserve moral and decent treatment and respect.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Significance of Translation for Philosophical Education (On the Example of the Ukrainian Translation of Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason) 2020-12-24T20:01:34+02:00 Ivan Ivashchenko Vitali Terletsky <p>The paper deals with the Ukrainian translation of Immanuel Kant's&nbsp;<em>Critique of Pure Reason (1781/87)</em>. We tried to answer the question of whether the Ukrainian reader who is willing to understand Kant's argument but does not understand the German original would be able to understand it by using only accessible now Ukrainian translation of this text. After checking the adequacy of terminological patterns applied in the translation and the correctness of the interpretation of overly complex syntax used by Kant, we concluded that it is impossible to understand Kant's argument by reading only accessible now Ukrainian translation of this text. It is noted that an unavoidable condition for a professional translation's success is the professional community's agreement on how specific terms of a particular author should be translated so that there could not be any terminological confusion during discussions. It is unacceptable when different words in the original language denote the same term in the original. The translation is always an interpretation.</p> <p>Consequently, the reader has to interpret the interpretation, so the translator's maximum task is to preserve the original meaning's multidimensionality as much as possible. However, it is, of course, impossible to achieve the multidimensionality inherent in the original completely. We concluded that the translator of a classical philosophical text should be a researcher who has proven his or her understanding of both the text he or she translates and the tradition to which this text belongs. All these conditions were not adequately met in the case of the translation of Kant's&nbsp;<em>Critique</em>. Due to many inconsistencies in the available Ukrainian translation of the&nbsp;<em>Critique of Pure Reason</em>, errors in the interpretation of the Kant's syntax, and sometimes even Kant's vocabulary, the reader will not be able to understand the key Kant terms.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The term “predstavlennia” in philosophical texts and in its translations 2020-12-24T20:20:32+02:00 Oleh Ihorovych Hirnyi <p>The article is devoted to the terminological problem of adequate Ukrainian translation of the Polish term "przedstawienie", which is a generic term to denote visual and abstract works of human intelligence. In the available Ukrainian texts, visual works are usually denoted by the term "ujavlennia", abstract – by the term "poniattia". However, these two species terms still do not have in the practice of Ukrainian word usage an established generic term that generalizes them. In general, there are two versions of the Ukrainian translation of the term "przedstawienie": "predstavlennia" (representation) and "ujavlennia" (idea). Both options from a formal-grammatical point of view have both advantages and disadvantages. Their comparative consideration, involving the experience of using these terms in Polish (for the translation of their English, German and other equivalents) – is the main content of this article. The causes and consequences of differences in the use of the term "representation" in Ukrainian dictionaries – both encyclopedic and specialized, linguistic and psychological - are compared and analyzed. The author attempts to analyze the philosophical aspects of the use of the term "representation" in its relation to representations as concrete (visual) representations and concepts as abstract (non-visual) representations. Analyzing the influences on Ukrainian terminology from the Polish and Russian languages, the author argues in favor of the actual Ukrainian etymology of the term "representation" as a generic term. The Ukrainian language often involves the interchangeable use of the terms "predstavlennia" (representation) and "ujavlennia" (idea) as generic. Also in recent years, there has been a discussion in Ukrainian science about the possible use of the term "image" as a derivative of the term "image". Mostly Russian language influences as a basis for such use are proved. However, arguments are given regarding the priority of using the term "representation" as a generic language in the Ukrainian language. This is closer to the Polish language. The author presents the main arguments of the philosophical discussion on the term "representation", which took place in Polish philosophy.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020