Filosofiya osvity. Philosophy of Education 2021-08-11T00:10:32+03:00 Mykhailo BOICHENKO (Михайло БОЙЧЕНКО) Open Journal Systems <p>"<strong>Filosofiya osvity. Philosophy of Education</strong> "is a scientific journal published by the Institute of Higher Education of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine in cooperation with the Ukrainian Society of Philosophy of Education. "Philosophy of Education "is a peer-reviewed journal with open access, which focuses on paradigmatic, theoretical, methodological and conceptual issues of the philosophy of education. "Philosophy of Education "publishes articles presenting a wide range of philosophical and educational issues, paying attention to educational issues in the context of globalization, the&nbsp;information revolution, transit society, which is Ukraine. He deduces contemporary research on understanding the strategies of reforming education in the 21st century from the standpoint of different methodologies and philosophical approaches. The magazine published the first translations into Ukrainian of works (M.Gorkheimer, J.Gabermas, P.Slotterdijk) and original articles, an appeal to readers, interviews with well-known contemporary philosophers, sociologists and educators, such as W. McBride, P. MсLaren E. Laszlo, P. Sztompka, S. Shtobrin, J. Bishop, J. Gore, Jan de Groof, M. Peters, F. Fukuyama, M. Burawoy, Jin Wann Park. The journal forms the space of philosophical discourse&nbsp;is the center of the Ukrainian Society of Philosophy of Education&nbsp;and also develops contacts with scientific communities of other countries. The composition of the editorial board is represented by researchers from Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Poland, Greece, the United States and Croatia. Its activities include not only the publication of the journal, but also the holding of scientific conferences, methodological seminars, roundtables on topical issues of education, popularization,&nbsp;and implementation of research ideas and developments in educational practice, which is reflected in the issues of the journal. The authors' articles in the magazine, as well as access to the magazine archive, are free.</p> Woman philosopher of the Pythagorean school about human nature and upbringing 2021-07-23T12:58:18+03:00 Feano of Croton Mia of Croton Melissa Fintis of Spartan Esara of Lucan Ptolemais of Cyrene <p>The article offers academic translation into Ukrainian of a number of works by Pythagorean woman philosophers, which reveal the problems of human nature and personality education. The focus is on such pseudo-epigraphs of ancient woman thinkers as two letters by Theano of Crotone, letters of Miya of Crotone and Melissa, as well as treatises by Fintys of Sparta "On a woman prudence", Aesara of Lucania "On human nature" and excerpts from Porphyry’s "Pythagorean music" which contain fragments of the works of Ptolemais of Cyrene. The main themes of the above works and letters are the education of the individual in general, and women in particular. Accordingly, the basis of education should be an element of restraint and prudence in everything. If the child is brought up on this basis, he will be able to be strong and resilient during certain life situations. In the treatises of the Pythagorean women-philosophers it is noted that through the study of our own human nature (namely, the human soul) we can understand the philosophical foundations of natural law and morality. Therefore, a woman should use in her life not fleeting emotions and reactions to a particular event, situation, but also be moderate and prudent. These texts are significant in the context of understanding gender issues in the Hellenistic era. Based on the translated works, we can say that, according to thinkers, a number of virtues are common to both sexes (courage, justice and wisdom), moderation or abstinence are more common in women. At the same time, the limitation of the social role of women reflects an understanding of the nature of the female soul. Accordingly, the normative principle of harmony must be implemented in the context of the specific social roles allowed to women. At the same time, the availability of these texts indicates that philosophy is possible for both men and women, thus emphasizing the importance of involving the latter in knowledge and scientific knowledge.</p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Review of the IX International Symposium on Bioethics "Health, Medicine and Philosophy: Survival Strategies" 2021-07-23T13:36:46+03:00 Nataliia Boychenko Svitlana Pustovit <p><em>The IX International Symposium on Bioethics on April 15-16, 2021 was a significant event for the bioethical community. There were discussed the applying of philosophical, theoretical, methodological and bioethical principles of modern medicine and the concept of health in the context of global challenges.</em></p> <p><em>The Symposium was organized by the Department of Philosophy of the Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine and the Ukrainian public organization "Ukrainian Association for Bioethics"; Testemitanu State University of Medicine and Pharmacy; Sakharov International State Ecological Institute, Belarusian State University; Tashkent State Dental Institute; South Kazakhstan Medical Academy.</em></p> <p><em>The article highlights the key ideas of the reports of leading bioethicists, theorists of medicine and philosophers. Annotations of reports at the plenary session of the symposium are presented in more detail. In particular, there are represented the main thesis of the reports of Svetlana Pustovit, Tatiana Gardashuk, Olga Gomilko, Tatiana Mishatkina, Sergei Melnov, Vladimir Falko, Theodore Ţîrdea , Nikolai Kiselyov, Zamirа Mukhamedovа, Susan Miller.</em></p> <p><em>The main points of the resolution of the IX International Symposium, which were adopted by all participants, are reflected in this review.</em></p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Viktor Petrovych Andruschenko’s "Phenomenon of Education" 2021-07-23T14:09:17+03:00 Lesya Panchenko <p><em>Review of the monograph of Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Academician of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine Viktor Petrovich Andrushchenko, made in 5 books:</em></p> <p><em>Andrushchenko, V. P. (2020) The phenomenon of education: in 5 books. Book 1. The concept of education: content and subject field. Sumy: University book. 452 s.</em></p> <p><em>Andrushchenko, V. P. (2020) The phenomenon of education: in 5 books. Book 2. Structural and functional analysis of education. Sumy: University book. 592 s.</em></p> <p><em>Andrushchenko, V. P. (2020) The phenomenon of education: in 5 books. Book 3. Existential space of education. Sumy: University book. 500 s.</em></p> <p><em>Andrushchenko, V. P. (2020) The phenomenon of education: in 5 books. Book 4. Ukrainian education: history of formation, development, modernization. Sumy: University book. 560 s.</em></p> <p><em>Andrushchenko, V. P. (2020) The phenomenon of education: in 5 books. Book 5. Articles and interviews. Sumy: University book. 536 s.</em></p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 History training: a time of lost opportunities 2021-07-22T23:19:52+03:00 Sergii Proleiev <p><em>The article analyzes the problem of Ukraine's independence. Independence is viewed in two ways: as a formal legal act and as the real sovereignty of the people. The acquisition of real sovereignty is seen as a process of achieving social maturity (education) of the people in the course of its history. Shows the genealogy of the idea of an independent state and its connection with the era of modernity. The idea of state independence is not inherent in either the political consciousness or the practice of most of the era of civilization until the beginning of modernity. The thesis is substantiated that independence is an important social task of modern Ukrainian society, and not a fact of its life. The political and legal basis of independence is the sovereignty of the people. It is declared by the constitution, but did not take place de facto. The limited sovereignty of the people is associated with the usurpation of power and property in Ukraine by a closed ruling corporation. The article analyzes three main social forces that determined the development of the country during the period of independence. They are: the selfish interest of the new ruling class, the state aspiration of the protest movement (it is usually called national democratic) and the inertia of Soviet life of the bulk of the population. There is a meaningful connection between the way of governing in the Soviet system and the regime of the dominant corporation in contemporary Ukrainian history. The key feature of the ruling corporation is the implicit, hidden nature of its dominance. This destroys productive social dynamics, creates the preconditions for social collapse. Recently, after the second Maidan, there has been a lawsuit between the people – civil society – and the corporation of rulers and its social satellites for the organization of public life. It is concluded that only the elimination of the privileged position of the ruling corporation opens up the prospect of real democracy and the productive development of Ukraine in a globalized world.</em></p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Calling of education: challenges and achievements of independence 2021-07-22T23:42:58+03:00 Mykhailo Boichenko <p><em>Education is a broad way to the individual, collective and societal success and independence: it consists of pedagogical efforts, learning and upbringing. All these components are united in educational communication that revealed personal vocation to some job and future profession, on the one hand, and spiritual strategic calling of life. The vocation itself is a challenge for the individual, local community and for the state, because it often requires the effort of all forces and the full revealing of one’s creative potential – to get a good citizen and successful member of community. At the same time, it is through the implementation of his or her vocation that the individual receives the resources and abilities giving him or her the strength and ability to respond to numerous external challenges. To give a proper answer for these challenges personality should find own core, reveals oneself and choose priority values. To get some benefits from job as a vocation it is necessary to find your calling in life – its main, strategic purpose, its intrinsic meaning: our calling gives us goals and our vocation gives us means to achieve these goals. Friedrich Nietzsche called for a genuine academic freedom as only honorable aim for student and researcher and gave a radical critique for the university bureaucracy and academic officialism. Such systematic and total criticism, not as nihilism, but as a component of the systematic search for an authentic vocation and sacred calling, is taught by education, and best of all, by academic education. Independence is not a gift or a trophy, it is a state of searching for one's own authenticity and a sense of pleasure in the struggle for it. Therefore, independence can and should be both personal and common – because human is always no less a social being in unity with others than in gaining his or her own autonomy through others.</em></p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 From demographic crisis to prosperity: Ukrainian students are the key to success 2021-07-22T23:54:56+03:00 Oleh Zubchyk Olha Zubchyk Maksim Lynchenko <p><em>The article analyzes the demographic situation in Ukraine in comparison with European countries. Features, forms of manifestation nd causes of the demographic crisis in modern Ukraine are shown. It is established that the situation with demographic potential is especially critical in Ukrainian society. It is substantiated that the current demographic situation is characterized by depopulation trends, declining birth rates, increased mortality, reduced life expectancy. Among the main factors contributing to the deteriorating demographic situation in the country are economic (low wages and pensions, inflation, constantly rising tariffs for housing and communal services, electricity, gas), social (unsatisfactory housing conditions for young people, high unemployment, deteriorating public health, declining health care), political (political instability, political risks, incomplete changes in the management system, inconsistency of public administration mechanisms with management goals, copying other people's reforms, lack of clear idea and integrated (comprehensive) reform strategy), state- managerial (with solving the problems of self-organization, ie overcoming the inconsistencies of the state of public administration and civil society to the modern world level and the requirements of their organization and functioning, as well as problems of improving the subject-object relations, management regime). The influence of migration processes among young people on the development of society is determined. It is substantiated that the demographic problem is a public administration problem. It is noted that one of the factors in increasing the role of youth in state-building processes and social development is the system of higher education. Public policies (demographic, youth, education) need to be more effective.</em></p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Independence in opposition to the "Russian world": a philosophical and pedagogical dimension 2021-07-23T00:13:14+03:00 Volodymyr Volkovskyi <p><em>In the article, the author analyzes some political and philosophical dimensions and perspectives that become relevant on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of Ukraine's Independence. The author, positioning himself within the political philosophy and philosophy of history, points out several fundamental points relevant to the identity and positioning of Ukrainian society on "eternal issues of Ukrainian society", such as discussions on the national idea, national identity, its historical and spatial perspective. The author's presentation is divided into four points: the century-old perspective of the Ukrainian struggle for independence, definition of the current Ukrainian situation in the context of nation-building and confrontation with Russia, the theoretical dimension of "national idea" and "civil religion", practical conclusions about the Ukrainian kind of these concepts. The author relies on the methodology of modern Nationalism Studies, Postcolonial Studies, the experience of Ukrainian studies, especially in the era of Ukrainian modernity (XIX-XX centuries). He postulates that the thirtieth anniversary of Ukrainian independence is inextricably linked with the century of liberation struggles of the Ukrainian nation, that the situation in Ukraine, in particular in the context of defining national identity and confrontation with Russia, can be correctly described as a confrontation between independentists of a modern emerging nation and the colonial empire, which fights for regaining its power over the former colony-province, relies on its numerous loyalists and uses various methods of aggression (both "cold" cultural war and "hot" military confrontation) to subdue the region. The author offers his view on the concept of "Ukrainian national idea", based on the basic literary sources of the history of Ukrainian nation-building. Based on the research, the author offers certain practical conclusions important for teaching history, law, civic education and for the education of a responsible citizen in Ukraine.</em></p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The archetypal character of the educational activity of person: social and philosophical analysis 2021-07-23T00:37:50+03:00 Alla Makarova <p><em>The article analyzes the problems of modern educational activities in the context of the socio-philosophical analysis of the specifics of the information society. The problems of “self-development” and “self-presentation” of a personality are raised in the context of their interpretation in the context of the current situation of social transitivity. The position of eliminating educational institutions from educational processes, the threat of creating the phenomenon of education without a pedagogical component is considered as problematic. The "traditional" and "innovative" accents in the socio-philosophical discourse of education are compared, their semantic connotations are presented. The necessity of maintaining the balance of archetypal-educational functionality is substantiated, which consists in the formation of a system of socialization actions through a complex of educational levels, which have archetypal meaning expressed by special functions. The scientific novelty of the research is the schematic comparison of the functional characteristics of the archetype with the tasks of different levels of education as an orientation towards different potencies of the personality. In particular, the social functions of archetypes (in the author's three-component concept), the archetypal typology and schematics of E. Berne, C.-G. Jung and M. Mark and M. Pearson were compared with the tasks and meanings of the levels of education (primary, secondary and secondary special, higher), there are three functions of education, closely determined by the archetypal meanings of pedagogical activity. At the same time, a scheme is proposed in which the orientational-coordinating, stereotyping-normative and integrative-systematizing archetypal components form the tasks and functions of education: correlation, correctional and compensatory. The purpose of the article is to identify stable functions, principles, elements that, in any reform of the educational sphere, in particular, pedagogical, should be preserved, since they constitute the semantic foundations of its existence as a social institution of personality development. These are recognized as the unity of training and education, the unity of the past, present and future as organic links in the transfer of social experience and the preservation of social memory. Accordingly, six archetypes of educational activities are identified.</em></p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Polish realistic philosophy of the twentieth century and its educational implications 2021-07-23T01:04:10+03:00 Mikołaj Krasnodębski <p><em>Polish Thomism has developed an original philosophy of education and pedagogy (Stefan Kunowski, Jacek Woroniecki, Feliks Wojciech Bednarski, Mieczysław Gogacz and others), which correspond to particular varieties of this philosophy. In traditional thomism emphasis is placed on education of virtue. In exsistential Thomism philosophers focus on “becoming a man”, to achieve full humanity, and in consistent Thomism philosophers focus on the effect of education and the issues of personal relationships and standards of education. Thomistic Pedagogy is the study of the choices in the principles of education. That’s why M. Gogacz believes that „there is only the philosophical education”. On the basis of recent studies in this field I carried away the impression that classic division designated by Plato's philosophy (idealism) and Aristotle (realism), can also be adopted for the purposes in the classification of education and upbringing theory. Through the analysis on idealistic and realistic anthropology and ethics I have attempted to show that a realistic paideia is still current and should be re-read. Novelty of this work is to "enter" the existing among pedagogues and philosophers standards of education into a specified philosophy of esse and resulting from it philosophy of man and ethics focused on protecting people and the theory of speech of the heart (sermo cordis). In my opinion, this is an innovative approach to the education and philosophy of education, and pedagogical implications arising from the so-understood recognition of man, his cognition and behavior may prove to befruitful on the pedagogical and educational level. All that is required by realism at the level of education are proper arrangements among educational strategies and the determination of who is a man.</em></p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Problem of Collective Moral Responsibility: Qualitative Case Study of Anton Makarenko's Collectivist Pedagogy 2021-07-23T01:35:37+03:00 Volodymyr Salii <p><em>The article seeks to address a fundamental gap in collective moral responsibility research by exploring a collectivist rather than the dominating individualist perspective on the relationship between a private individual and the collective whole. In particular, it presents a qualitative case study of ideas of outstanding Ukrainian teacher, methodologist and theorist of education, founder of the pedagogical school Anton Semenovych Makarenko and his collectivist pedagogy as a major educational paradigm implemented within the context of the Soviet state and society. The analysis of the concepts of collective experience, communist personality, collective, distribution of powers, responsibility, and discipline contributes to a better understanding of the nature of individual and collective moral responsibility. At the same time, the article argues that a consistent implementation of the collectivist worldview results in an essentially flawed misbalanced relationship between an individual and the collective of people. In the Soviet context, such misbalance is evidenced in the phenomena of the cult of personality and state paternalism. As a consequence of identifying responsibility with discipline, the individual personality is deprived of its moral and utilitarian autonomy, devalued, and forcibly assimilated by the collective whole perceived as the highest authoritative source of moral judgement and the sole distributor of moral responsibility. Consistent implementation of the collectivist worldview in the context of Soviet society inevitably leads to an imbalance in the relationship between individual and collective principles and, ultimately, the justification of any coercion and violence by the state as such a team performing the highest guardianship and pedagogical function.</em></p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Oughtness of the Politics and Culture of ‘Created’ Identities for Teaching Nigerian History: A Case Study of the Egbe Omo Oduduwa 2021-07-23T01:48:55+03:00 Olajumoke Olufunmilola OLAIYA <p>History education has been able to give a flowing account of how various cultures have been co-existing prior European encounter. The historical account has evolved from the mythical stage into the scientific stage with evidence adduced and coming forward to revise and even correct initial assumptions. In the face of these revisions and corrections, it is not in place to demand: how do we teach African history to students? What is the connection between religion and culture in the making of a people? Using Kwame Appiah’s cosmopolitan perspective as my theoretical framework and through the method of philosophical analysis, I tender that the idea of an identity that is distinct or peculiar to a particular people cannot be reliable. To make my point lucid, this research uses the Yoruba of south-west Nigeria as paradigm. I contend that the emergence of <em>Egbe Omo Oduduwa </em>is not tied to a special or peculiar identity, but a surge in the need to emphasize common grounds over differences in order to establish a common cause for a perceived identity. The point that has been established thus far is that all the small kingdoms and mighty empires that claim to share the <em>Yoruba </em>identity in contemporary times, were hitherto sworn enemies who hardly perceive things from a similar perspective. It is however interesting to note that it was during the colonial era and the press for political independence that informed the need to coalesce and create an identity from that which cuts across all of them to initiate a common denominator. From the exploration of the Yoruba peoples from earliest times to the present times, it is the case that there was no perception of common ground prior 1945. The factors that led to the recognition of a common ground are tied to the struggle for liberation from foreign powers. It is on this that note that this research submits that identities are human creations and they neither primordially original nor pure.</p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The enduring relevance of philosophy in the education system. Part 1 2021-07-23T10:31:47+03:00 Volodymyr Ratnikov <p>The subject of this article are philosophical questions that arise in the process of philosophical reflection on some modern trends in education. At a number of points, these issues intersect with the problems of philosophy of education as a relatively independent philosophical discipline. The article analyzes the actualization of philosophy in modern higher and secondary education. The general reasons for this actualization are revealed (insufficient accuracy in dealing with philosophical concepts; low level of philosophical and methodological culture; the general cultural mission of philosophy is not yet properly understood), as well as some reasons related specifically to higher and secondary education. In both cases, this relevance is considered both by modern science and by reflection on it. Integration projects in education exacerbate the relevance in updating the modern system of secondary and higher education in Ukraine. First of all, it concerns the desire for a harmonious combination of knowledge and competence, the real integration of theoretical and practical components of learning. These positive traits become a serious factor that stimulates the cognitive activity of students and their motivation for research. In the united and contradictory process of knowledge development, integration is accompanied by differentiation, just as analytical activity in general is supplemented by synthetic in a single process of analytical-synthetic activity. At the same time, the underestimation of the analytical side of activity and excessive emphasis on its synthetic, integrative side is not a methodologically justified position, including because it is known from the history of scientific knowledge that a new object in the initial stages of its knowledge, first of all, try somehow dissect, analyze its parts, and only then make a complete picture of it, explain it and understand.</p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Autopoesis in on line learning 2021-07-23T11:02:10+03:00 Iryna Dobronravova <p><em>Conception of autopoesis has an important place among conceptions of self-organization. Biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela consider living beings as self-referring and self-constructing autonomous systems, namely, as autopoietic systems. They proclaimed: “All doing is knowing. All knowing is doing” in their famous book “The Tree of Knowledge”. It concerned all living beings, including human beings with the biological roots of their cognition. Author of the article choose this conception of self-organization as working model of on line teaching and learning just because the lack of such biologist roots in on-line communication. Unconsciousness but influenced features of live communication by humans with their “embodied mind” just loose in communication on line. Analyzing own experience of off line and on line teaching in frame of autopoetic approach, author tries to seek the means to overcome the restrictions of on line teaching and learning. The idea by Maturana and Varela about continually recurrent interactions between participants of doing and knowing which provide their creation of common world in common linguistic field became the main point of conclusion. Active communications between lector and students and between students in workshops can partly compensate an absence of live communication. It means that standard obvious relation between quantity of lectures and workshops have to be changed with free choice by lector among new special forms of on line learning. Original work of students for solving the tasks are preferable, especially if the tasks are connected with scientific or technologic researches. In any case supporting the discussions and debates, teachers can stimulate those recurrent interactions which guarantee the autopoesis as self-construction of common world in which self-organization of young persons is possible in their becoming the young specialists. The concept of autopoesis is able to maximize the success of communication between teachers and students and students to each other to provide feedback in the joint actions of cognition, creating the effect of sustainable self-organization in learning.</em></p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Genetic principles of the philosophy of perfect education 2021-07-23T11:55:03+03:00 Valentyn Pomohaibo Andrii Pomohaibo <p>Based on the analysis of the content of the book of famous British behavioral geneticists K. Asbury and R. Plomin «G means genes: the impact of genetics on education and achievement» shows the way to create a perfect school education, based on the latest numerous large-scale and long-term researches in different countries and prove that the role of genetic factors in human learning and life success is not absolute and that the impact of the environment is no less important than genes. This thesis is a base of the personalized child education idea. Based on an analysis of the research results, the authors of the book assert that school education should be personalized. It is the personalization of learning that will ensure to develop the thinking ability, acquire knowledge and skills at a pace and direction that is appropriate for each child. Personalized learning should be based on the following principles: a minimization of the core curriculum and test basic knowledge and skills; a maximizing of options to all pupils alongside the compulsory basic knowledge and skills; a stopping of labeling ability of children; an individual education of each pupil; a teaching of children to achieve success; a promotion of equal opportunities for children from an early age; an availability of out-of-school education for all children; a two-stage physical education program; wide choice of future life ways; a training of new teachers in genetics and a giving them the methods to put it into pedagogical practice; the scale of schools in directions and levels of education. Finally, the authors of the book offer their vision of a school that will be based on the laws of behavioral genetics. Possible publication of the book by K. Asbury and R. Plomin, «G is for genes: The impact of genetics on education and achievement» in Ukrainian will be an interesting and useful handbook for policymakers, educators and parents with its constructive recommendations on one of the most important educational challenges – how to prepare each and every child for a successful life in today's ever-changing world.</p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Apology of the Ukrainian Kantiana: a critique of the nihilistic critique of the first Ukrainian-language “Critique” 2021-07-23T12:10:29+03:00 Ihor Burkovskyi <p><em>The article deals with the review of the Ukrainian translation of "Critique of Pure Reason" (CPR) from the previous issue of the magazine. The publication of I. Ivashchenko and V. Terletsky tries to prove the thesis of unsatisfactory quality of translation – the article proves the failure of this attempt. It is shown that most of the reviewers' remarks are untenable, and, most importantly, the presented material is highly insufficient to prove their thesis. Unsatisfactory text quality means not just the presence of errors in it, but their high frequency. For an expansive text, a demonstration on a representative sample is required (its approximate format is offered) – there is nothing similar in the review. Some of its remarks are terminological, which may mean high-frequency errors, due to the repetition of certain terms, but in fact the valid points of those remarks are to point out a few omissions and variability in the translation of some less important terms. The review states that the terms should be translated "everywhere in the same way", while the use of a synonym causes, and inevitably, "the destruction of the structure of the argument". The first assertion is applicable with limitations, especially in the case of CPR, which is not characterized by terminological scrupulousness, and the second is a great exaggeration. The reviewers did not demonstrate any such grave consequences of the synonymy of the terms. In fact, the review proves only that there are flaws in the translation – but this is natural, they are in any translation, in the Ukrainian one they were additionally caused by the unfavorable conditions in which it was made. To neutralize these errors, it is to develop and distribute a list of amendments to the text.</em></p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Upbringing and education of children in context letters of Pythagorean woman philosophers 2021-07-23T12:18:49+03:00 Vitalii Turenko <p><em>The article reveals in detail the understanding of raising children in the context of two pseudo-epigraphic letters of Pythagorean wonan thinkers – Theano and Myia of Crotone. Based on these letters, it was found that pedagogical issues were important in general for the whole Pythagorean tradition. In fact, we can say that this early Greek philosophical school was the first to systematically and comprehensively approach the problem of upbringing and education in ancient society. It is hypothesized that this topic is not accidentally in the center of attention of these philosophers, because their authority was the greatest among all other representatives of this philosophical school. The author’s position is proved that Theano of Crotone letter to Eubule focuses on moderation in education, which is aimed at avoiding luxury, fulfilling all children’s whims, comfort. This is the purpose of hardening in difficult circumstances in order to withstand with dignity all the potential difficulties of adult life. Accordingly, if you do not raise a child in certain restrictions, then, according to Theano, it may well be unprepared for certain trials that may occur. The thesis is substantiated that the key task of upbringing and education, according to Myia of Crotone letter, is moderation, prudence and balance, which is based on both archaic elements and Hellenistic plots, which testifies to the skill of writing this letter. It is revealed that the Pythagorean principles of education, according to both philosophers, have no gender difference. This is because both girls and boys, if they grow up in luxury, comfort and do not know the limitations, can potentially become dangerous both for themselves and for society as a whole. It is emphasized that according to the style of writing, these letters are not so much moral and ethical as paraenetic epistolary genre, ie they act as advice on the upbringing and education of the younger generation. Because of this, these letters are such sources of ancient culture, which are one of the few that are devoted to the philosophical understanding of upbringing and education.</em></p> 2021-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021