Filosofiya osvity. Philosophy of Education https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed <p>"<strong>Filosofiya osvity. Philosophy of Education</strong> "is a scientific journal published by the Institute of Higher Education of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine in cooperation with the Ukrainian Society of Philosophy of Education. "Philosophy of Education "is a peer-reviewed journal with open access, which focuses on paradigmatic, theoretical, methodological and conceptual issues of the philosophy of education. "Philosophy of Education "publishes articles presenting a wide range of philosophical and educational issues, paying attention to educational issues in the context of globalization, the&nbsp;information revolution, transit society, which is Ukraine. He deduces contemporary research on understanding the strategies of reforming education in the 21st century from the standpoint of different methodologies and philosophical approaches. The magazine published the first translations into Ukrainian of works (M.Gorkheimer, J.Gabermas, P.Slotterdijk) and original articles, an appeal to readers, interviews with well-known contemporary philosophers, sociologists and educators, such as W. McBride, P. MсLaren E. Laszlo, P. Sztompka, S. Shtobrin, J. Bishop, J. Gore, Jan de Groof, M. Peters, F. Fukuyama, M. Burawoy, Jin Wann Park. The journal forms the space of philosophical discourse&nbsp;is the center of the Ukrainian Society of Philosophy of Education&nbsp;and also develops contacts with scientific communities of other countries. The composition of the editorial board is represented by researchers from Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Poland, Greece, the United States and Croatia. Its activities include not only the publication of the journal, but also the holding of scientific conferences, methodological seminars, roundtables on topical issues of education, popularization,&nbsp;and implementation of research ideas and developments in educational practice, which is reflected in the issues of the journal. The authors' articles in the magazine, as well as access to the magazine archive, are free.</p> Institute of Higher Education NAES of Ukraine en-US Filosofiya osvity. Philosophy of Education 2309-1606 <div class="copyright_notice"><br> <ul>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication;</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowl­edgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ul> </div> Ancient genre of tragedy as a public «school» https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/695 <p>Review of a new monograph by contemporary Greek philosophers Panos Eliopoulos and Christopher Vasilopoulos (Eliopoulos, P., &amp; Vasillopulos C. (2021) Interpreting Euripides's Medea from Aristotelian and Nietzschean Perspectives. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. 530 p.). The relevance of scientific research is highlighted and the key concepts and ideas on which scientists focus in the reviewed book are highlighted.</p> Vitalii Turenko Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 266 271 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-16 Psychotherapy of the Lived Space: A Phenomenological and Ecological Concept https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/693 <p>Using phenomenological and ecological psychology as a base, the author develops the concept of lived space as the totality of an individual's spatial and social relationships, including his ”horizon of possibilities”. The lived space may also be regarded as the individual's ecological niche, which is continuously shaped by his exchange with the environment. Mental illness may then be conceived as a limitation or deformation of the patient's lived space, inhibiting his responsivity and exchange with the environment. Unconscious dysfunctional patterns of feeling and behaving act as "blind spots" or "curvatures" in lived space and lead to typical distortions, thereby further restricting the patient's potentialities and development. Accordingly, the task of psychotherapy is to explore and understand the patient's lived space in order to reopen his horizon of possibilities. The main agent for this purpose is the interactive field of psychotherapy, which may be regarded as a "fusion of horizons" of the patient's and the therapist's worlds.</p> Thomas Fuchs Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 240 256 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-14 Education as a calling and way of life: Interview with Doctor Pádraig Hogan. October 19 – December 17, 2021 https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/694 <p><em>This paper presents an interview with Pádraig Hogan – a prominent Irish educator and researcher in the field of pedagogy, well-known in the European Union and beyond it. This interview is an echo of discussions at an International Conference – The 9th Congress of the Philosophy of Education Society of Poland “Education and the State” on September 24-26 2001 in Krakow, organized by the Institute of Pedagogy at the Jagiellonian University, the B. F. Trentowsky Society of Philosophical Pedagogy, the Polish Philosophical Society and other authorities. Pádraig Hogan opened this Congress with a report “Uncovering Education as a Practice in its Own Right”. Pádraig Hogan is a Professor-Emeritus of the National University of Ireland Maynooth. He has a keen research interest in the quality of educational experience and in what makes learning environments conducive to fruitful learning. Now he is an active participant in several international scientific-educational researches. For a long period (from 2003) he was leader of the research and development programme ‘Teaching and Learning for the 21st Century’ (TL21), a schools-university initiative. His books include The Custody and Courtship of Experience: Western Education in Philosophical Perspective (1995); The New Significance of Learning: Imagination’s Heartwork (2010); Towards a better Future: A Review of the Irish School System (co-authored with J. Coolahan, S. Drudy, Á. Hyland and S. McGuinness, 2017). To date he has published over 130 research items, including books, journal articles, book chapters and commissioned pieces. This interview give answers on the questions about topicality of personal education, issues of educational experience, cognitive and emotional aspects of the communication of teacher and students, perspectives and limits of educational hermeneutics and the best maintenance of educational traditions.</em></p> Pádraig Hogan Mykhailo Boichenko Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 257 265 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-15 The notion of ‘Open Science’: its values and meaning for the higher education system https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/680 <p><em>The article is dedicated to the analysis of the notion and phenomenon of ‘open science’ as a way to solve the paradoxes of the today’s science as a mass occupation, especially in higher education. In the absence of inner motivations for scientific investigations among both undergraduates and professional researchers, science becomes a ‘closed’ system, which turns into a profanation of academic activities and is deprived of connection with society in general. The concept of “open science” that has appeared in the public discourse in 2010s is presented as a complex multilayer phenomenon. The analyzes reveals that this notion combines the emphasis on behavior, practices and procedures (free and open public access to data, methods, research results and publications) on the ‘lower‘ level with the urge to create technological platforms, services and tools for scientists to enable their wide international and interdisciplinary cooperation on the ‘middle’ level and with the theory and values that would enable science to re-institutionalize itself in today’s society as a public activity on the ‘higher’ level. The values here refer to the classical scientific ethos: openness of science acts as an explication of the mertonian principles of universalism and communism as fundamental values of science. It is argued that the development of the ‘open science’ concept corresponds to the democratization of science in general: a truly effective academic activity could be based only on the moral imperative of each human person as an autonomous and creative subject of judgment and of reconstruction of the ideal of scientific ethos. At the same time, ‘open science’ partly resembles today a popular slogan actively used in public discourse and in various declarations, but the task of filling it with meanings and translating it into practices is still unsolved.</em></p> Yurii Mielkov Copyright (c) 2022 Filosofiya osvity. Philosophy of Education http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-25 2022-02-25 27 2 8 23 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-1 Imperatives of responsibility of research activity of researchers https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/681 <p>In this article, the author makes an attempt to analyze the responsibility of research activities of researchers as a systemic phenomenon. The research is based on the combination of the results of the generalization of theoretical provisions with the results of practical developments, reflected in the standards of international and European documents. The author is disclosing the role of responsibility of research activity as a priority area of integration of the domestic research system into the European research area, ERA.</p> <p>The main result and scientific novelty of this article is the generalization of the imperative norms of responsibility of the researcher as the main actor in the system of research activity. An essential aspect of the study of the responsibility of research activities of researchers as a systemic phenomenon is the author's proposed classification of relevant imperative requirements regulated by international and European standards. Their structure contains such components: general responsibility; ethical and professional responsibility; responsible evaluation of research activities; quality, reliability, and integrity; cross-border cooperation; scientific education and training of researchers; responsibility of young scientists; research processes and results.</p> <p>The author concludes about the multifaceted nature and difficulty of the imperative field of responsibility of research activities of researchers and argues that the behavior of researchers is largely mediated by the nature of the relationship and the level of responsibility of other subjects of the research activity.</p> Olha Petroye Copyright (c) 2022 Filosofiya osvity. Philosophy of Education http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-25 2022-02-25 27 2 24 45 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-2 The Philosophy for Children Program: its origin and lesson structure https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/682 <p>The article is devoted to the world-famous program for the development of thinking skills "Philosophy for Children" by Matthew Lipman, which was formed in the early 1970s. The program is outstanding in that it develops three types of thinking – critical, creative and caring. The article gives a brief overview of the history of the program and its formation. In particular, the article notes that Matthew Lipman, as a professor at Columbia University, realized that students are not able to formulate their own judgments and ask questions. He saw the root of the problem in school education, which does not develop the skills of critical thinking. According to Lipman, logic is at the heart of the program which teaches these skills. He saw introducing the study of logic in the school curriculum as his task. To make it effective and interesting, Lipman wrote the philosophical novel <em>Harry Stottlemeier’s Discovery,</em> which was build around the exploration of Aristotle's logic. The success of an educational experiment with reading this novel at a school in Montclair (USA) in 1970 over a period of six months inspired Lipman to continue writing texts for children of all ages and to develop manuals for teachers. Lipman's educational project began to bring together fellow educators, the first of whom was Anne-Margaret Sharp. Together with her, in 1974 Lipman founded the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children (IAPC). The article notes which scientists (philosophers, psychologists, linguists) influenced the formation of Lipman's theoretical views.</p> <p>The second part of the article describes the step-by-step plan of the lessons and explains in detail the importance of each of its elements. Emphasis is placed on the role of the facilitator and the qualities he should possess. The context of positioning critical thinking in contemporary education in Ukraine is also analyzed.</p> Yuliia Kravchenko Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 46 55 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-3 Fairy tale therapy: philosophical and educational reflection https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/683 <p><em>У статті здійснено міждисциплінарне дослідження феномену казки та охарактеризовано особливості проведення казкотерапії. Проаналізовано основні класифікації казок, які зустрічаються у арт-терапії. Зокрема, види казок за світоглядним типом: міфологічна, релігійна, наукова, філософська та види казок, за якими здійснюється недирективна взаємодія із дитиною: художні, дидактичні, психотерапевтичні, психокорекційні, медитативні. Проаналізовано широку джерельну базу щодо підходів до виникнення та значення казки у житті людини, починаючи від поглядів давньогрецьких філософів. Досліджено досвід сучасних українських та закордонних теоретиків і практиків арт-терапії, що зосередили свою діяльність навколо актуальних проблем казкотерапевтичних методів роботи. Під терміном казкотерапії розуміються засоби передачі психологічних знань про соціальне становлення особистості за допомогою метафоричних засобів (за Т. Д. Зінкевич-Євстигнєєвою). Визначено, що казкотерапія є одним із найдавніших психологічних та педагогічних методів роботи. Проаналізовано теоретико-методологічні основи казкотерапії, систематизовано найпоширеніші методи роботи з казкою, сформульовано вимоги та основні компоненти казкотерапевтичних занять. Визначено, що казкотерапія є універсальним методом роботи, який найбільш актуальний на заняттях із дітьми дошкільного віку та школярами, однак він може бути дієвим навіть у роботі з дорослими. Обґрунтовано, що казкотерапевтичні заняття найбільш вдало можна організувати під час навчально-виховного процесу у закладах позашкільної освіти, однак, потрібно чітко розуміти мету таких уроків та аудиторію, на яку вони розраховані. Визначено етапи арт-терапевтичних занять у закладах позашкільної освіти, проаналізовано найпоширеніші принципи підбору казок. Доведено, що ефективність організації навчального-виховного процесу на основі казкотерапії безпосередньо пов’язана із дотриманням певного алгоритму роботи, однак вимагає постійного моніторингу та гнучкості. Охарактеризовано правила створення та функціонування середовища для проведення арт-терапевтичних занять.</em></p> Iryna Tymkiv Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 56 65 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-4 Medicine and the Medical Arts https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/684 <p><em>At the beginning of the 21st Century, the achievements of medicine as well as the accomplishments of scientific and technological civilization are obvious to everyone. Today, many illnesses can be treated far more precisely than in the past. Therapies allow patients to lead a self-determined and fulfilled life again. Nevertheless there remains an uneasiness that something is being short-changed, that we are lacking something. Since the middle of the 19th century, the scientific character of medicine has been emphasized in a special way. Medicine wants to be regarded especially as one of the emerging natural sciences. Its emphasis on experimentation is becoming more important. The paper discusses the question of what is the essence of medicine actually, or what it should be, and what follows from this for how physicians should act. We are not concerned about alternatives to the scientific and technical side of medicine, but about a larger field of view.</em> <em>We are discussing this here in seven steps that involve systematic and historical perspectives from the history of philosophy and medicine.</em> <em>The patient is not just "a case" or "a number" in the hospital ward or an entry on an index card in a medical practice, not just an object. The concrete patient must be at the centre. The patient's concerns must be heard. The guideline for medicine that is understood as medical art cannot be just a look at efficiency and feasibility.</em> <em>Medical art is an educational process: a spiritual forming of individuals that requires time and cannot be switched on by the touch of a button. It does not simply mean the memorization of medical study materials, but the process of human maturation to become a true companion to the patient in an existentially challenging situation.</em></p> Marcus Knaup Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 66 87 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-5 Educational experiments using living organisms: bioethical rationale for the correction of techniques https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/685 <p>The relevance of the topic of the article is due to two trends in the world and in Ukraine: the spread of research practices that need to be understood in the discourse of bioethics, and attempts to introduce bioethics (or its basic ideas and principles) in the educational process of technical universities. These two trends are combined in the practice of using animals in scientific experiments. Taking into account the fact that a component of such research in not only scientific, but also educational experiments, this topic becomes an urgent problem in the discourse of the philosophy of education. The purpose of the article is to present and analyze the experience of correcting the methods of educational and demonstration experiments using living organisms, which are carried out at the Odessa Polytechnic State University. As examples, the course of laboratory work on the study of the influence of wastewater from foundry dumps on living organisms (specialty 136-Metallurgy) and an experiment to study the effect of photon irradiation on biological objects in the aquatic environment (specialty 163-Biomedical engineering) are described. Guppy fish (<em>Poecilia reticulata Peters</em>) are used in both experiments. The results of the analysis of the correction of the methods of these experiments form the scientific novelty in three aspects: 1) the substantiation of the need for the formation of bioethical competencies is given not only for physicians and veterinarians, but also for engineers of various specialties; 2) an additional principle of bioethics of experiments on animals is proposed and tested - the principle of early stopping of an experiment (educational and demonstration) at a certain stage; 3) it is shown that giving students the opportunity to make decisions about changing the experiment procedure allows them to better understand the boundaries of what is necessary and sufficient, forms their willingness to take responsibility for the result of the experiment and for the lives of people and animals.</p> Lada Prokopovych Nataliya Titova Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 88 98 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-6 The enduring relevance of philosophy in the education system. Part 2 https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/686 <p>This article focuses on the analysis of the importance of philosophy for streamlining the content of secondary education, in particular the topic of integration of subjects and integration processes in general in the field of education. Pragmatic demands for education and attempts to make it more modern and creative, to promote critical thinking, and to bring education closer to science can also be the basis for such integration. All of this is commendable, but the many ways to integrate secondary education need to be improved. First of all, some of the latest pedagogical techniques and practices have not yet received their methodological understanding within the general vision of the tasks, the interrelated ways of their implementation and the use of the potential of combining school education with extracurricular.</p> <p>Among the variety of existing integration educational projects, there are three types (their names are quite conditional): "STEM", "Four in one" and "case method". It is emphasized that the authors of these educational projects are not always correct in operating with the philosophical concepts used in the description of projects. The weak philosophical and methodological support of the projects and the insufficient methodological culture of their authors are pointed out. In particular, this manifested itself in an inadequate interpretation of the concept of integration. The content of the category "integration" in relation to the category "synthesis" is specially analyzed in the article. A philosophical and methodological analysis of these integrated educational projects was conducted, as a result of which it was shown that the shortcomings of the methodological culture can significantly affect the adequacy of the content and correctness of the wording of such projects.</p> <p>As a consequence of the analysis, the author calls for some methodological order in the pedagogical discourse, ie insists on the need to improve the philosophical and methodological culture of educational projects.</p> Volodymyr Ratnikov Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 99 115 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-7 Philosophy of Education: on the Issue of Conceptualization https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/687 <p>Philosophy of education functions as systematic socio-cultural phenomenon combining methodology, science, values, national/European/world pedagogical traditions. Philosophy of education is characterized by complex of theories (ideas), scientific, cultural, values, moral and ethical principles determining not only the meaning / content of education and training, but also a certain type of personality. Worldview-philosophical analysis emphasizes the planetary-cosmic dimension of human existence and the planetary-cosmic personality type (anthropic principle; man-microcosm as a reflection of the macrocosm-universe). World relations in the coordinates of culture, man-made (western) and traditionalist (eastern), identifies personality types: individualistic (West), collectivist (East). The article reveals the compatibility of ideas, theories, approaches (philosophical anthropology and ontology, subjective, cultural, comparative, communicative, praxeological), according to the priorities of the post-neoclassical. On this basis, the expediency of the theoretical and methodological tools of the philosophy of education as a synergistic of interaction of basic life-value concepts (man-science-culture-art-style of thinking) and goal-setting - the formation of the subject of culture. The subject of culture is formed in certain society (pluralism of political, economic, legal, educational, religious systems), environment of immanent values, moral and ethical precepts, customs, beliefs, spiritual traditions. The spiritual and value bases of the existence of the European person as a subject of culture determine the space of the Judeo-Christian tradition and technogenic (Western) civilization. For a person as a subject of culture of the eastern (traditionalist) area, the spiritual and value basis is Confucianism and Taoism (China), Confucianism and Buddhism (Japan). The activity of the subject of culture in particular is realized in planetary space. Comparative analysis of West-East communication actualizes trans-scientific intentions of philosophy of education. The praxeological directions of strategic social changes in Ukraine are singled out: fundamental turn to science and education; modernization of science-intensive technical-technological-production processes; financing of innovations (investments, business) at the level of leading universities.</p> Svitlana Cherepanova Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 116 137 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-8 «Teacher-student» relationship: nonlinearity of interaction of individuals https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/688 <p>The idea of considering the nonlinearity of interactions between personalities in «teacher-student» relationship is determined the transition of science from classical to non-classical and post-classical stages of its development. Paradigmatic shifts that require semantic explication of the «teacher-student» relationship in a certain discourse are associated with a synergetic research program and the formation of complex and nonlinear styles of scientific thinking. Since there are a number of approaches to the philosophical and methodological study of the «teacher-student» relationship, we can talk about a number of complications, because each of the components of this relationship shows the diversity of their interactions and so on. That is why there is no single understanding of the problem of the «teacher-student» relationship, which could be applied to different contexts. Based on a nonlinear approach to understanding the teacher-student relationship, the nonlinearity of each of the components of this relationship and their interaction with each other is revealed. Clarification of the problematic spectrum of the term «personality» in the article was based on the study of classical and modern research. The methodological perspective through which the study took place gave a holistic view of the understanding of the nonlinearity of the features of personality in both components of this relationship. It was found that a person can be interpreted as nonlinear only in his interaction with others, that is why any person involved in the educational process will acquire nonlinear characteristics. The importance of understanding the nonlinearity of personality characteristics in modern post-classical discourse is clarified and the methodological potential of the nonlinear approach to understanding personality is investigated. Based on the synergetic approach it is revealed the understanding of nonlinear characteristics of personalities as active subjects of the «teacher-student» relationship, who are capable to self-organization, self-development, self-regulation, self-analysis and self-realization, and are carriers of nonlinear thinking.</p> Ruslana Koperlos Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 138 147 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-9 Active citizenship in a globalized world: philosophical and educational implications https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/689 <p>In today’s globalized world, the issue of active citizenship is gaining relief, becoming an essential determinant of the nature of civilizational progress. The study examines the possibilities of modern education to develop civic activism. The underestimated potential of lifelong learning as a tool for the development of active citizens has been identified, including opportunities for the development of older citizens. We have demonstrated the potential of the neoliberal model of active citizenship as one that corresponds to the current state of civilizational development, at the heart of which is a person who is aware of his political rights and responsibilities in a multicultural world. It was shown that lifelong learning, the enduring educational trajectory of the individual, should be a practice of developing democratic values and principles of active citizenship, developing skills in working with sources of information, initiative, responsibility, knowledge of social principles, and the role of citizens in it, etc. The article carries out a historical and philosophical reconstruction of views on the issue of active citizenship. The dynamics of the content of the above concept are demonstrated. It was possible to outline methodological guidelines that allow interpreting active citizenship as an educational ideal, based on some modern methodological positions (lifelong learning, etc.). The study demonstrates the shortcomings of the methodological position, according to which the competence of active citizenship, for the most part, is the result of educational influence in the system of secondary and higher education. Possibilities of the fruitful combination of formal and non-formal education in the development of active citizenship are demonstrated. The symbiosis allows providing the necessary praxeological dimension (combination of theory and practice of active citizenship) to the processes of becoming an active citizen in the current challenges of civilization.</p> Shishi Xu Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 148 159 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-10 Motivation as a basis for legitimacy: anthropological and psychological, legal and educational approaches (philosophical assessment) https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/690 <p>Motivation is a key factor in getting involved in education, as well as in other things. After all, the existence of objective prerequisites for education is only a necessary basis for its success, but the use of these conditions properly depends to a large extent on the adequate motivation of participants in the educational process. Therefore, proper motivation is a sufficient basis for making efforts to achieve a better result. However, efforts also need to be directed correctly: there is not enough to be passionate about, something must be done in a way that is acceptable to others and understandable to them. Therefore, motivation is inevitably more or less related to legitimacy, i.e. the provision of normative activities. For each case there is the best motivation for it and proper legitimacy. Motivation refers to the identification of basic values of a certain type of activity, legitimation requires a clear understanding and recognition of certain norms that are generally accepted in this activity. At different stages of adulthood, the motivation and legitimation of its activities alternately play a priority role, although both of them are more or less present at all stages of personality development. Therefore, both the excessive opposition of motivation and legitimacy and attempts to consider one as part of the other are wrong – these are relatively self-sufficient mechanisms to ensure the success of individual behavior. Motivation and legitimacy are closely linked to the individual's acceptance of certain obligations and responsibilities, which are the basis for the individual's acquisition of certain rights. Unsuccessful motivation and inappropriate legitimation of an individual's behavior is a sign of his unsuccessful socialization, which risks losing the connection of the individual with the main social institutions of society – especially with the state. In the case of their successful implementation, motivation and legitimacy are an important means of effective inclusion of the individual in the functioning of social systems, as well as – in the improvement and development of such functioning.</p> Natalia Fialko Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 160 174 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-11 Apology of the Ukrainian Kantiana: once again on how not to evaluate philosophical translations https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/691 <p>The paper deals with the review of the translation of Kant’s “Critique of Practical Reason”, published by Vitaly Chorny in this magazine last year as a continuation of the review by I. Ivashchenko and V. Terletsky (treating the translation of “Critique of Pure Reason”) which is scrutinized in the previous issue. The new review turned to be a similar attempt to prove a biased statement about the unsatisfactory quality of Ukrainian translation. It is shown that this attempt is even more unsuccessful than the previous one: it is characterized by a much lower level of professionalism and significant illogicality. The vast majority of its claims to translation are proven to be again insolvent or insignificant, i. e. in both cases they are only imitations of proof of its pretended unsuitability. The cardinal flaw of the review, as well as the previous one, is the lack of any appropriate method of translation evaluation. The reviewer tries to compensate for the weakness of the argument by sharp rhetoric, unrestrained exaggerations, such as “terminological chaos”. The justification of the last verdict is unsuccessful: in fact only a few translation omissions and some minor shortcomings are given. In the same way, the allegations of a large number of gross translation errors due to the translator's incompetence remained unproven, excepting adduction of a few real flaws due to oversight. In fact, the review, like the previous one, proves only that the translation, as any other one, is not error-free. In addition to the obvious damage, there is some benefit from it, namely a modest contribution to the list of corrections to the translation.</p> Ihor Burkovskyi Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 175 227 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-12 Ecological, phenomenological and embodied approach in psychotherapy and its significance for the education of psychotherapists https://philosopheducation.com/index.php/philed/article/view/692 <p>The article is devoted to the basic elements of ecological and phenomenological approach in psychology, psychiatry and psychotherapy, as they are present in the philosophy of the famous German psychiatrist-philosopher Thomas Fuchs, as well as to justificate the translation strategy of Fuchs' philosophy and description of the most difficult terms. The originality of Fuchs' attitude is shown, which is a combination of different modern research approaches: phenomenology, enactivism, ecological psychology, ecological psychotherapy, topological, vector psychology and field psychology, as well as existential psychiatry and psychotherapy. It is proposed to interpret the theoretical and methodological attitude of Thomas Fuchs as based in part on the enactivist guidelines of two-dimensional consideration of the embodied subject, in part on the rehabilitation of philosophical anthropology and Naturphilosophie of Helmut and the natural philosophy of Helmut Plessner and his version of the idea of two-dimensional embodied subject in the methodology of humanities and natural sciences. In particular, the possibility of interpreting Professor Fuchs' approach as a modern Naturphilosophie within the general project of naturalization of phenomenology is shown. In addition, the article shows the difference between the ecological approach and ecological methodology. The emphasis on the fact that Fuchs uses an ecological approach in his philosophy justifies the use, at first glance, of such contradictory methodologies as phenomenology, ecological and topological psychology, enactivism, and so on. Along with this, the ecological approach is considered as a project of radicalization of the phenomenological attitude or as a radical phenomenological stance.</p> Yehor Butsykin Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 27 2 228 239 10.31874/2309-1606-2021-27-2-13