Critical thinking: concept and practice

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31874/2309-1606-2022-28-2-7

Keywords:

critical thinking, thinking, rationality, logic, philosophy

Abstract

The relevance of critical thinking makes it necessary to clearly define this concept and explore the steps necessary to acquire the skill that lies behind this concept. Today, in the specialized literature, you can find a variety of definitions of critical thinking, which can give the impression that this field is in a chaotic state. The author’s analysis made it possible to identify the essential features of this concept, based on which critical thinking is defined as the ability to analyze the process of thinking for its compliance with the criteria of rationality. Acquiring this skill involves mastering three main components: normative, descriptive and prescriptive. The normative component includes knowledge about the standards of rational thinking. These standards include not only the rules, principles and laws of logic but also the basic laws of statistics and probability theory, as well as the rules of scientific work. The descriptive component involves the acquisition of knowledge about how we actually think. First of all, we are talking about heuristics and cognitive biases, which are kinds of algorithms by which habitual thinking occurs, and which often lead us to mistakes. The prescriptive component includes knowledge of how to make the transition from habitual thinking to correct thinking. The author notes that critical thinking is an interdisciplinary project because mastering this skill requires the use of information from various fields of knowledge. At the same time, the article describes the special role of philosophical community both in the study and in teaching critical thinking. Accordingly, it is concluded that there is a need for more active development of this field by Ukrainian philosophers, which may become a promising area for the implementation of their professional skills.

Author Biography

Vitaliy Nadurak, King Danylo University, Ivano-Frankivsk

Doctor of Sciences in Philosophy, professor. Field of scientific interests: Dual-Process Theory in cognitive sciences; Moral decision-making theory; Metacognition

References

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Published

2023-02-08

How to Cite

Nadurak, V. (2023). Critical thinking: concept and practice. Filosofiya Osvity. Philosophy of Education, 28(2), 129–147. https://doi.org/10.31874/2309-1606-2022-28-2-7

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