Logic of modern educational paradigm: I. Kant versus J. Locke
The paper contrasts the enlightenment and reflective educational paradigms on the basis of studying their underlying logic. The author argues that the enlightenment paradigm, developed by J.A. Comenius, is designed in accordance with inductive logic, which can be understood through actualization of J. Locke`s sensual epistemology and theory of a person as a reflective self-identity over time. In this paradigm, the emphasis is done on the teacher's activity in transferring knowledge to the pupil and shaping his personality. The author claims that the enlightenment paradigm of education is out of date and is not relevant to requirements of contemporary information society. Belief about cognition as passive reception of information by the senses and processing of this information by the mind disagrees with the conclusions made on the basis of research in cognitive science. And belief about a person as a thinking intelligent being, who is able to realize his or her identity over time and expand his or her experience, does not characterize it as an autonomous being capable of self-improvement. The paper proves that the transformation of educational paradigms is possible by changing views concerning the essence of cognitive process and the content of the concept of person. The deductive logic of reflective educational paradigms reveals through the actualization of I. Kant`s transcendental theory of knowledge and the normative theory of personhood. The author concludes that Kant's idea of the autonomy of reason in its theoretical and practical application should become the fundamental principle of the new education paradigm, within the scope of which the primary subject of the educational process is the pupil as representative of the humankind, endowed by nature with certain makings that need to be cultivated, that is to output to a higher level. The main difference between the reflective and the enlightenment paradigms, in the author's opinion, lies in the fact that within the first one the pupil is viewed as an active subject, having autonomy and capable of self-activity. In accordance with this, the entire educational process must be built on the horizontal-democratic principle.
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