Kharkiv lectures. J. G. Fichte and J.B.Shad: education as a task
(translated from German and annotation by M. Kultayeva)
Keywords:education, German idealism, human, humanity, freedom, morality, organic body, digitalization
The lecture is devoted to the explication of the functional possibility of education conceptualized as a task, which is addressed both to human and society. The problems concentrated on this field are regarded in the contemporary social and cultural contexts in which the philosophy of education of Fichte and Schad would be proofed on its actuality. The connection between politics and education are unveiled with their contextual and historical distinctions. The new tendencies of the developments of education are analyzed with positive and negative consequences both of the digitalization and of the empirical turn in the theory and practice of education. It is showed that the one-sided interpretation of the possibilities of digital technologies is caused by the biological and pragmatically approaches to a human being provoked by the radical changes in culture and in the world of labour. The positions of humans both in the post-industrial reality and in the first decades of the XIX century have some common features because in those periods many new possibilities were opened for human’s self-realization and perfection. Taking into account these circumstances the representatives of German idealism have paid especially much attention to education. For German idealism it is typically that the educational problems are regarded in connection with the idea of the freedom and the principal new conceptualization of human as a self-responsible person with no needs of the support from the higher metaphysical instances. The senses and functional potential of Kant’s categorical imperative are analyzed on its anthropological foundation. The human is showed there in his affiliation to mankind, what means the self-obligation for him and for mankind. This would be obligate foundation of the all moral acts despite any kind of the heteronomy. All these ideas became the further development in Fichte and Schad. They state, that the human being must be defined with the taking into consideration the material substation of humanity. This assumption is necessary to clarify the importance of the human disposition for forming, what presumes available the human competence for using sensuality, reason and mind in problems solving in order not to turn into the instrument for purposes of the Others. This is the main and actual task of the education.
Fichte J.G. (1845) Über das Wesen des Gelehrten und seine Erscheinungen im Gebiete der Freiheit. In: Fichtes sämtliche Werke. Bd.6. Hrs. von J.H. Fichte. 1845. S. 349-447.
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